It’s Not Solely About Fixing Windows

A reader wrote into Sean Kirsts weblog to praise him for another in a series of posts and articles about litter. The comment that got me going was this:

“The ‘Broken Window syndrome’ is well-known; it’s the little things, like litter, graffiti, abandoned cars and crumbling front porches that create the impression that bigger indiscretions will go unnoticed.”

The Broken Window theory certainly is well-known. People throw it into conversations and writings all the time. The problem is that most take it as the gospel truth, like this writer, that the theory explains how places such as NYC turned their cities around and reduced crime. It is an appealing theory–stop the turnstile jumpers in the subway, the squeegee men in the street and the loiterers in the park then, voila! Watch drug crime and violence plummet.

Unfortunately, this is one of the classic logical fallacies: post hoc ergo propter hoc. In English it means “If after, then therefore, because.” The fallacy is to believe if one event happens after another, then the first must be the cause of the second.

Yes, New York City cracked down on so-called “quality of life” violations. And yes, drug crime and violence also declined. Are the two connected? Increasingly, academics studying this issue are quite skeptical of “broken windows” policing.

The big-time bestseller Freakonomics by economist Steven D. Levitt and journalist Stephen J. Dubner, point out many intertwined explanations for the reduction in drug crime and violence in NY City during the “broken windows” era–such as a reduction in number of young men of prime crime-committing age and more people in jail due to drug and gun laws.

In his book Illusion of Order, sub-titled The False Promise Of Broken Windows, University of Chicago law professor Bernard Harcourt argues that Broken Windows has never been validated with research data and he himself lays out a case for its failure. His study of a 1990’s-era HUD program that relocated juvenile offenders from chaotic neighborhoods to stable neighborhoods showed that their rate of criminal activity remained the same in both neighborhoods.

And what have been the effects of Broken Windows on the ground? Ezekiel Edwards is a staff attorney for the Bronx Defenders, a nationally recognized organization of public defenders that has become a model of community-based advocacy for clients that are charged with crimes and for the communities they live in. He makes an eloquent case that its only practical effect has been harassment of poor and minority residents (as well as overloading an already burddened court system).

This whole debunking of Broken Windows also contributes to my belief that the continual discussion on litter control on Sean Kirst’s weblog is sort of beside the point. Crime wasn’t reduced solely by fixing broken windows. Litter will not be solved solely by sprucing up the interstate. What has worked locally in the fight to reduce litter? The bottle bill certainly took a large part of the waste stream off the streets. We should investigate in more large-scale methods to give people in this throw-away culture a reason to reduce, re-use and recycle. Couldn’t we investigate things such as the tax on fast food restaurants being tried in Oakland? Shouldn’t we invest more heavily in DPW crews, especially near known waste producers?


4 thoughts on “It’s Not Solely About Fixing Windows

Add yours

  1. I am not up on the specifics of the NYC “broken window” program, so I can’t comment. But I would definitely second the call for some kind of mesure on fast-food restaurants. This past weekend I was out taking some pictures (well, trying to) in my sluburban district – of lower Geddes Brook, to be precise, which is not as “pristine” as the upper part – and I just noticed that 9 out of 10 pieces of trash seemed to be from the McDonald’s located maybe a couple hundred yards away. (The 10th piece? A large used NY Lottery stub that no doubt came from the Wegmans next door…)

    I think “naming and shaming” local trash producing establishments might at least create some public awareness and maybe things like that Oakland tax could get passed here.


  2. Oh, and PS – on my way BACK from this little expedition, I was stopped at a light and a minivan drove in front of me, a hand came out through the open window and tossed a banana peel right onto the road. I suspect, (but cannot prove) that this person did NOT in fact learn this behavior from seeing a lot of broken windows.

    Although… I’m not sure the discussion about litter on interstates has been all about “clean it up and all litter will stop” – I think it’s basically been more about trying to make the entrance to Syracuse look nice.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s

Create a free website or blog at

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: